|1. Indus Valley||
It arose around 2500 BC. Harappans built public baths and cultivated cotton. Their cities such as Mohenjodaro (now in Pakistan) had brick buildings, brick covered streets. Here are a couple of terracota objects from Mojenjo-daro.
Pipal (a kind of fig) tree or Tree of Life, Mohenjo-daro, 2500 BC
Lord of Animals, Mohenjo-daro, 2500 BC (Smithsonian Institution)
|2. Mesopotamia||Sumerians invented writing and beer. It began around 2700 BC. Abraham was born in a Sumerican city of Ur of Chaldea.|
|A cast of a stone tablet from the Uruk period (3300 - 3100 BC). The original is from Kish and was in Irak Museum. (Whether it is still there is uncertain due to the looting in 2003.) Symbols: head, hand, foot, 1, 2, 3, hammer (British Museum)|
|The symbol for beer is an upright jug with a pointed base. It appears three times on this tablet. (British Museum)|
|The symbol of a human head with a triangular object is
the verb meaning "eat." (British Museum)
Look for this symbol in the above tablet.
The Epic of Gilgamesh also record that Babylonains drank beer. Gilgamesh sends a whore to Enkidu, who wanted a match with Gilgamesh.
"Enkidu knew not what bread was nor how one ate it. He had also not learned to drink beer. The whore opened her mouth and spoke to Enkidu: Eat the bread now, O Enkidu, as it belongs to life. Drink also beer, as it is the custom of the land."
|3. China||Chinese began to use pictographs from Shang dynasty (1766 - 1050 BC). Chinese who settled around Yangtsu River developed sericulture (silk). More on this later.|
|A ritual wine container, from Anyang circa 1200 BC. Shang Dynasty (1766- 1050 BC). Smithsonian Institution.|
|Burial jade disc. Eastern Zhou dynasty (770 - 221 BC). Compare these with Etruscan art below.|