An Experimentally-Based Theory of Gravity
Developed by Morton F. Spears

Last Updated: 6 January 2016

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   Electrical & Computer Engineering
Iowa State University
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Photo of Morton F. Spears

Table of Contents:


Morton F. Spears (MIT, 1943) developed a new experimentally-based approach to understanding gravity based on electrostatic relationships and the permittivity of open space.

This website is an updated expanded version of an AOL website (now closed) that he maintained on his gravity research. Annotated links are provided below to his books and reports as well as to several of his unclassified patents.

Morton F. Spears died on October 22, 2006. All materials linked below are posted with permission of the Morton F. Spears Estate.

Please Note:
All materials below are made available in portable document format (pdf). These pdf materials can be viewed and printed using the freely available Adobe Reader.

Research Reports

  Morton F. Spears, "An Electrostatic Solution for the Gravity Force and the Value of G" (pdf,349K), January 9, 1997, published posthumously in Galilean Electrodynamics, Vol. 21, No. 2 (March/April), 2010, pp. 23-32.

Note: The original 1997 version of this document can be accessed here (pdf,111K), The three figures for this document can be viewed in larger more-easily read font either in three separate downloads [ Figure 1 (6K), Figure 2 (4K), Figure 3 (6K) ] or in a combined figure file (html).

Abstract: Gravity is electrostatic. This paper substantiates this claim by deriving, through basic electrostatic relationships, a simple equation for gravity forces that includes an expression for the gravity constant G in terms of electrostatic parameters. Applied to interaction between two separated sub-atomic particles in open space, the derivation of G results in a value that falls within the range of the currently best known and accepted empirical measurements. The general electrostatic gravity equation next derived is applicable for all physical entities however small or large, thus presenting a comprehensive new way of perceiving and understanding gravity forces. A variety of other important conclusions also follow. For example, the electrostatic approach helps to explain why experimenters who use different physical layouts may continue to find different empirical values for G regardless of the precision of their measurements.

  Morton F. Spears, "A Reexamination of the Velocity of Light, Dark Mass, and the Accelerated Expansion and Age of the Universe" (pdf,44K), August 23, 2004 (six page summary report).

Abstract: This paper establishes the amazing ability of space permittivity and permeability to determine the velocity of light, the extent of Dark Mass, and the accelerated expansion of the universe. In addition, taking into account the dependence of the velocity of light on permittivity and permeability, it is shown that the universe is significantly older than is generally accepted.

  Morton F. Spears, "Permittivity Creates Dark Matter and an Older Universe With Accelerating Expansion" (pdf,46K), July 8, 1998.

Abstract: The purpose of this report is to provide simple answers to the following three questions by considering the effects of what has been happening over time to one single property of open space; namely, the permittivity of that space:
  1. What is dark matter and why does it exist?
  2. Why do so many distant stars appear to be older than the expanding "Big Bang" Universe of which those same stars are a part?
  3. Why is our Universe expanding at a greater velocity now than it did many millions of years ago?

  Morton F. Spears, "Determining Age, Expansion, and Dark Matter for Our Universe" (pdf,21K), February 24, 1999.

Abstract: This report demonstrates that a changed model of the universe results when the assumption is made that permittivity reduces with time in an expanding universe. Age, expansion, and dark matter are all affected.

  Morton F. Spears, "Correct Visualization of Forces Between Balanced Zero-Net-Charge Atomic Particles" (pdf,28K), October 15, 2004 (two page summary report).

Abstract: In standard introductory physics textbooks, one finds the following claim: The positively charged proton and the negatively charged electron in an atom such as hydrogen cancel each other for all outside generation of electrostatic forces. This claim is incorrect due to a non-reciprocal characteristic of atoms. This paper provides a brief explanation of this experimentally determined non-reciprocal effect using simple hydrogen atom examples for concrete illustration.


  Morton F. Spears, CTG: Capacitance Theory of Gravity, Quill Publications, Inc., c. 1991. ISBN: 0-9629933-0-1.
Note: Readers interested in this book (CTG-Book I) can access either a low-resolution version (pdf,3M) suitable for reading on-line or a high-resolution version (pdf,8M) suitable for printing as well as reading on-line.

Abstract: Every object or particle floating in space has capacitance to its background and to other objects or particles. For electrically energized objects or particles, capacitance establishes the ratio of charge-to-voltage, but needs neither charge nor voltage to exist. It is part of the fundamental nature of the universe. Yet capacitance is rarely, if ever, included in theories of basic forces and fields. This book demonstrates some of the profound effects of capacitance, establishing correct qualitative and precise quantitative characteristics of gravity as confirmed by the many empirical observations and measurements made through the years.

  Morton F. Spears, CTG: Capacitance Theory of Gravity, Book II, Quill Publications, Inc., c. 1993. ISBN: 0-9629933-1-X.
Note: Readers interested in this book (CTG-Book II) can access either a low-resolution version (pdf,4M) suitable for reading on-line or a high-resolution version (pdf,11M) suitable for printing as well as reading on-line.

Abstract: An electronic circuit approach to gravity is furthered in this second book, building on the capacitance theory of gravity developed in CTG-Book I (see above).

Publicly Available Patents

  Morton F. Spears (1992), Force Generating System ("Artificial Gravity Mat"), US Patent 5090643.

  Charles E. Odams and Morton F. Spears (1972), Interference Rejecting Device for Energy Receiving Systems, CA Patent 914760.

  Charles E. Odams and Morton F. Spears (1972), Apparatus for Correlating Energy Waves, CA Patent 915267.

  Morton F. Spears (1970), Loop Antenna Comprising Plural Helical Coils on Closed Magnetic Core, US Patent 3495264, CA Patent 851341.

  Charles E. Odams and Morton F. Spears (1968), Directionally Selective Energy Receiving System, US Patent 3369235, CA Patent 897772.

  Marshall N. Arlin, Morton F. Spears, and Richard H. Woodward (1965), Timing System for Setting Clocks to Distorted Standard, US Patent 3217258.

 Ralph H. Sherman and Morton F. Spears (1960), Shielded Magnetic Translating Apparatus, US Patent 2951912, CA Patent 652877.

  Morton F. Spears (1960), Device for Manifesting Thermal Boundaries, US Patent 2930232.

  Morton F. Spears (1956), Means for Controlling Current Flow in Electric Circuits, US Patent 2744981.

  Morton F. Spears (1954), Stepped Magnetic Recording Head, US Patent 2678972, CA Patent 555612.

  Morton F. Spears (1951), Magnetic Recording and Reproducing System, US Patent 2567582, CA Patent 511174.

Brief Author Bio

Morton F. Spears (1921-2006) was known internationally for contributions to electromagnetic antenna and sensitive receiving circuit designs, particularly those applicable to the ELF/VLF/LF frequency spectrum. A holder of many patents, his commercially successful technical achievements included original work for magnetic recording, remote radio signal timing and navigation, underwater electromagnetic signal reception and processing, and general low-frequency antenna technology.

He was an electronic engineering graduate of MIT (1943). He served from Ensign to Commander in the U.S. Navy during World War II and Korean conflicts and acquired professional skills in radar and nuclear physics, which he used during his tours of duty.

In 1970 he and several colleagues founded Spears Associates, Inc., which specialized in the design and supply of high-technology communication and navigation equipment for submarines, aircraft, ships, and land-based applications. Spears Associates was purchased by Sippican in 1996 and is now part of Lockheed Martin Sippican.

At Spears Associates he served in progression as President, Chairman of the Board, and finally as Senior Scientist returning to state-of-the-art research in electronics and physics. After retirement from Spears Associates in 1994, he continued to develop his experimentally-based capacitance theory of gravity. He also explored the implications of permittivity and permeability for understanding observed properties of the Universe.

Morton F. Spears died on October 22, 2006, in Duxbury, Massachusetts, at the age of 84.